In an Australian study in 2011 amongst 223 young people with Down syndrome, , aged 15-30 years, 61% complained of bone or muscle related problems.
Identification of musculoskeletal problems can be a challenge and is often delayed due to diagnostic overshadowing and difficulties in vocalization of pain.
A musculoskeletal assessment should be included as a part of yearly health examination to enable early identification and treatment.
Musculoskeletal problems difficulties arise from the underlying hypotonia, hypermobility, ligamentous laxity, auto immune dysfunction and premature ageing process, associated with Down syndrome.
The orthopaedic problems seen in Down syndrome include:
- Cranio-vertebral instability
- Cervical arthropathy
- Lumbar spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis
- Hip instability including subluxation and dislocation
- Slipped upper femoral epiphysis
- Perthes Disease
- Osteoarthritis of the hip
- Patellofemoral Instability
- Foot Abnormalities
- Congenital talipes equino varus (CTEV-clubfoot )
- Metatarsus Primus varus and associated hallux valgus and varus
- Flat feet
- Non-orthopaedic problems include:
- Inflammatory arthritis
- Early onset osteoporosis
Last updated: March 2015.
Basic Medical Surveillance Essentials for people with Down syndrome
Last updated: March 2012
based on a presentation by Dr. Janet Gardner-Medwin. DSMIG Glasgow. May 2007
Presentations at DSMIG Meetings
Presentations still to be uploaded
Cervical Spine Disorders in children with Down syndrome
14th November 2014 and 2008 London
Miss Sally Tennant
15th May 2013, London
Dr. Janet Gardner-Medwin
May 2007, Glasgow
Information and advice form British Gymnastics
Cruikshank M, Tunc A, Walsh J, Galea P, Davidson J, Gardner-Medwin J.
Pediatric Rheumatology 2008; 6 (Suppl 1): 54.
Book Chapter â€“ Musculoskeletal manifestations
Down Syndrome â€“ Current Perspectives Mackeith 2015
Edited by Richard Newton , Shiela Puri and Liz Marder